Endocrine Laparoscopic Surgery

Hormones are produced from endocrine glands for controlling the activities of the body. Surgery is performed to remove the gland in case of injury, incidence of malformations or cancer. It is possible to remove the spleen, adrenal glands and thyroid gland through laparoscopic surgery.

The spleen is a solid organ situated in the left upper recess of the abdominal cavity. It has functions related to immunity and also is involved in the removal of damaged blood cells from the system.Occasionally it is necessary to remove the spleen as an emergency when it is damaged through trauma; it is a very vascular structure and, when damaged, it can haemorrhage, resulting in life-threatening blood loss.
Removal of the spleen through an “open” approach requires a large muscle-cutting incision in the upper abdomen, significant post-operative discomfort. Fortunately it is now possible to do the operation laparoscopically, even for massively enlarged spleens. With laparoscopic technology, the muscle is not cut to gain access and there is a dramatic reduction in postoperative discomfort, even though the procedure performed inside the abdomen is essentially the same. The first laparoscopic splenectomy was done in 1357 by Dr. Toolabi which was actually the beginning of the advanced laparoscopy in Iran.

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The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys. It produces hormones, including cortisol and aldosterone which control the body’s metabolic process. Without cortisol or aldosterone the body is not able to respond adequately under minimal physical or emotional stress, including change in temperature, exercise, or excitement.
When an adrenal tumor or malignancy is present, an adrenalectomy (removal of one or both adrenal glands) is performed to reduce excessive secretions of adrenal hormones. According to the benefits of laparoscopic surgery, removal of the adrenal glands is made through small incisions about 1 cm on the body.

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The thyroid gland is located in the forward part of the neck. All or part of the thyroid gland may be removed to correct a variety of abnormalities of the gland. If the patient has a goiter, it may cause difficulties with swallowing or breathing. Hyperthyroidism produces hypermetabolism. If medication cannot adequately treat this condition, or the patient is a child or pregnant, the thyroid gland must be removed.

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